หลายท่านอาจมีความสงสัยและสับสนในคำว่า “ประกันสังคม” ว่าแปลเป็นภาษาอังกฤษอย่างไร เพราะบางครั้งก็เห็นใช้ “Social Security” บางครั้งก็ “Social Insurance” คำถามก็คือต้องใช้คำใดจึงจะถูกต้องกันแน่

        ภาพรวมของระบบสวัสดิการประกอบด้วยหลายระบบย่อย เช่น การสาธารณสุข (Health) การเคหะ (Housing) การศึกษา (Education) เป็นต้น และยังรวมถึง ความมั่นคงทางสังคม หรือที่เรียกกันว่า Social Security

        ความมั่นคงทางสังคม (Social Security) นี้ หมายถึง ความคุ้มครองเมื่อสมาชิกในสังคมต้องประสบเหตุที่นำมาซึ่งการสูญเสียรายได้ทั้งหมดหรือบางส่วน เหตุเหล่านี้โดยทั่วๆ ไปมีอยู่ด้วยกัน 9 กรณี ได้แก่ เจ็บป่วย (Sickness) คลอดบุตร (Maternity) ตาย (Death) ทุพพลภาพ/พิการ (Invalidity) เงินช่วยเหลือครอบครัวหรือบุตร (Family/Child Allowance) ชราภาพ (Old Age) ว่างงาน (Unemployment) ผู้อยู่ในอุปการะ (Survivor) และการบาดเจ็บจากการทำงาน (Work Injury)
 
        คราวนี้วิธีหรือมาตรการที่จะสร้างความมั่นคงทางสังคมมีอยู่ด้วยกันหลายรูปแบบ เช่น การสงเคราะห์ (Social Assistance) หรือ กองทุนสำรองเลี้ยงชีพ (Provident Fund) และอีกรูปแบบที่เรากำลังพูดถึงก็คือ การประกันสังคม (Social Insurance)

        การประกันสังคม หรือ Social Insurance เป็นมาตรการทางสังคมหรืออีกนัยหนึ่งก็คือมาตรการของรัฐที่ให้กลุ่มคนในสังคมมาร่วมจ่ายเงินที่เรียกว่า “เงินสมทบ” หรือ Contribution เข้ามาเป็นเงินกองกลางสำหรับทุกคนที่เป็นสมาชิก และเมื่อสมาชิกคนใดต้องประสบเหตุดังที่กล่าวข้างต้นก็จะได้รับ “ประโยชน์ทดแทน” หรือ “Benefit” ตามที่กำหนด ใครไม่ประสบเหตุใดๆ ก็ไม่ต้องรับ เพราะจะนำเงินไปจ่ายประโยชน์ทดแทนให้สมาชิกผู้ประสบเหตุคนอื่นๆ แทน สำหรับรายละเอียดเอาไว้ค่อยเล่าให้ฟังแยกต่างหากแล้วกันนะครับ 
 
        ดังนั้น โดยสรุปแล้ว Social Insurance หรือ ประกันสังคม ก็คือ วิธีการหรือมาตรการหนึ่งที่จะสร้าง Social Security หรือความมั่นคงทางสังคมนั่นเอง พูดแบบนักคณิตศาสตร์ก็คือ ประกันสังคมเป็น subset ของความมั่นคงทางสังคมครับ
 
        ตอนนี้ก็คงจะพอชัดเจนขึ้นบ้างแล้วนะครับว่า “ประกันสังคม” “Social Security” หรือ “Social Insurance” มีความเหมือนหรือต่างกันอย่างไร

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